Insights

Discover the financial markets, environmental and social characteristics of the communities we live, work and invest in.

KEY FIGURES Rwanda
Main urban centres Kigali, Muhanga, Musanza, Huye,
Rubavu, Rusizi, Nyagatare
Coast Line N/A
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 975 Rwandan Franc (RWF)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2019) 10122 9628
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2019) 721 673.97
Market capitalisation % of GDP 35.60% 35%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding (2019) 4.70% 0.2%
Population | Population growth rate 12,301,939 2.60%
Urbanisation rate 2019 3.19% 3.15%
Unemployment rate 1.30%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) N/A N/A
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 2019 592.48 573.16
Access to electricity (% of population 2018) 34.71% 34.10%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 56.89% 44.06%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.096 0.085
Climate and Carbon Regulation Law No. 48/2018 on the environment
Law no 63/2013 determining the mission, organization and functioning of Rwanda Environment Management Authority
Law No. 16 of 22 May 2012, determining the Organisation, Functioning and Mission of the National Fund for Environment (FONERWA)
Ministerial Order No. 003/16.01 of 15 July 2010 Preventing Activities that Pollute the Atmosphere
Organic Law 4/2005 determining the modalities of protection, conservation and promotion of environment in Rwanda
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Angola
Main urban centres Luanda, Huambo, Benguela, Lobito, Lubango
Coast Line 1,600 km (990 mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 657.02 Angolan Kwanza (AOA)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2019) 94635 101353
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2019) 2974 3290
Market capitalisation % of GDP 0.00% 0
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding (2019) 31.80% 7.5%
Population | Population growth rate 31,825,295 3.20%
Urbanisation rate 4.25% 4.30%
Unemployment rate 8.20% 7,3%%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) N/A N/A
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 2018 1,316.52 1475.53
Access to electricity (% of population 2018) 43.25% 41.96%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 53.17% 53.20%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2016 1.203 1.24
Climate and Carbon Regulation Law No. 27/15 amending Law No. 14-A/96 on the Basic Law on Electricity
Law 06/10 on sugar cane production for biofuel
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Malawi
Main urban centres Lilongwe, Blantyre, Mzuzu, Zomba
Coast Line N/A
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 755,00  Malawian Kwacha (MWK)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2019) 7667 6917
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2019) 412 381
Market capitalisation % of GDP 27.90% -
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 0.00% -
Population | Population growth rate 18,628,747 2.60%
Urbanisation rate 4.00% 3.96%
Unemployment rate 6.00%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 85.28% 83.72%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 2019 769.22 755.42
Access to electricity (% of population) 18.02% 12.70%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 91.31% 91.31%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.075 0.065
Climate and Carbon Regulation Environment Management Act (No. 19 of 2017)
Energy Regulation Act
Rural Electrification Act
Disaster Preparedness and Relief Act (Cap. 33:05)
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Zambia
Main urban centres Lusaka, Litwe, Ndola, Livingstone
Coast Line N/A
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 20.1 Zambian Kwacha (ZMW)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2018) 27.005 23.065
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 1556 1291
Market capitalisation % of GDP 14.60% 18%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 4.50% 5.5%
Population | Population growth rate 17,861,030 2.90%
Urbanisation rate 4.15% 4.17%
Unemployment rate 11.43% 11.41%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 88.99% 89.13%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 550.37 519.44
Access to electricity (% of population) 40.30% 39.81%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 96.99% 97.16%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.285 0.314
Climate and Carbon Regulation Constitution of Zambia Amendment Act
The Water Resources Management Act
Disaster Management Act
The Energy Regulations Act
The Forests Act
The Energy Regulation Order
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Uganda
Main urban centres Kampala, Entebbe
Coast Line N/A
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 3,699.05 Uganda Shilling (UGX)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2018) 32.733 34.387
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 767 777
Market capitalisation % of GDP 16.40% 22%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 0.00% 2.1%
Population | Population growth rate 44,269,594 3.70%
Urbanisation rate 6.00% 6.18%
Unemployment rate 1.84% 1.92%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 90.64% 90.83%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 910.67 902.87
Access to electricity (% of population) 31.82% 42.65%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 92.95% 91.36%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.14 0.143
Climate and Carbon Regulation Ugandan National Meterological Act
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Tanzania
Main urban centres Dar Es Salam, Dodoma, Mwanza
Coast Line 1,424km (884,83mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 2.319 Tanzanian Shilling (TZS)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2018) 58.001 63.177
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2019) 1122 1061
Market capitalisation % of GDP 10.30% 14%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding (2019, 2018) 15.20% 4,1%%
Population | Population growth rate 58,005,463 2.90%
Urbanisation rate 2019 5.07% 5.15%
Unemployment rate 1.98% 1.98%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 91.10% 90.99%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 2016 673.23 651
Access to electricity (% of population) 35.56% 32.73%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 34.15% 42.29%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.226 0.251
Climate and Carbon Regulation Tanzania Agriculture Research Institute Act
Disaster Management Act
Public Health Act
The Environmental Management Act
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Mauritius
Main urban centres Port Louis
Coast Line 177km (110mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 37.965 Mauritian Ruppee
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2019) 14.180 14.180
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 11208 11204
Market capitalisation % of GDP 42,4%% 72%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 2.30% 1.3%
Population | Population growth rate 1,265,711 0.10%
Urbanisation rate -0.03% -0.06%
Unemployment rate 6.69% 6.67%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 62.72% 62.98%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 2019 12,197.63 11,426.85
Access to electricity (% of population) 97.47% 97.42%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 22.72% 20.29%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 3.337 3.442
Climate and Carbon Regulation National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act
Renewable Energy Act
Energy Efficiency Act
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Cameroon
Main urban centres Douala, Youande, Bafoussamm, Garoua, Bamenda
Coast Line 360km (223,69mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 554.507 Central African Franc (XAF)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2019) 38.76 38.69
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 1534 1498
Market capitalisation % of GDP 1.10% 1%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 0.0% 0.3%
Population | Population growth rate 25,876,380 2.60%
Urbanisation rate 3.63% 3.67%
Unemployment rate 3.38% 3.43%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 87.68% 87.58%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 1,167.95 1,136.87
Access to electricity (% of population) 62.66% 61.34%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 75.33% 76.12%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.34 0.347
Climate and Carbon Regulation Law No. 2011/022 Governing the Electricity
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Ethiopia
Main urban centres Addis Ababa, Sebeta, Bishoftu, Mojo
Coast Line N/A
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 36.949 Ethopian Birr (ETB)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2019) 84.269 96.108
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2019) 857.50 771.52
Market capitalisation % of GDP 0% 0%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) 0% 0%
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 0% 0%
Population | Population growth rate 112,078,730 2.60%
Urbanisation rate 4.78% 4.83%
Unemployment rate 2.08% 2.08%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 85.64% 85.78%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 591.27 584.05
Access to electricity (% of population) 44.98% 44.30%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 99.96% 99.96%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.136 0.144
Climate and Carbon Regulation Rural Electrification Fund Establishment Proclamation (No. 317 of 2003)
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Egypt
Main urban centres Alexandria, Cairo, Giza
Coast Line 3,500km (2174,8 mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 15.7 Egyptian Pound (E£)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2019) 25,089,476,035 303,175,127,059
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 2549 3020
Market capitalisation % of GDP 12% 18%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 31.4% 43.1%
Population | Population growth rate 100,388,073.00 2%
Urbanisation rate 2.00% 2.00%
Unemployment rate 10.10% 11.44%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 31.10% 31.18%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 2019 5,704.00 5,486.50
Access to electricity (% of population 2019) 100.00% 100.00%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 8.26% 8.87%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 2.526 2.429
Climate and Carbon Regulation Investment Law no. 72/2017
Electricity Law
Egypt Renewable Energy Law
Presidential Decree no. 17/2015 amending Investment Law no.8/1997
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES Mozambique
Main urban centres Maputo, Biera, Nampula
Coast Line 2,500km (1553,43mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 72.39 Metical (MZN)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2019) 14.717 14.934
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2019) 499 492
Market capitalisation % of GDP (2019, 2018) 3% 4%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) N/A N/A
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding (2019) 0.00% 1%
Population | Population growth rate 30,366,036 2.90%
Urbanisation rate 4.40% 4.41%
Unemployment rate 3.17% 3.24%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 97.82% 97.60%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 2019 433.54 440.93
Access to electricity (% of population) 29.23% 31.10%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 91.16% 86.41%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.24 0.285
Climate and Carbon Regulation Law 15/2014 Establishing the Framework for Disaster Management
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES NAMIBIA
Main urban centres Wind-hoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Luderitz
Coast Line 1500 km (932mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 16.67 Namibian Dollars (NAD)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2019) 12367 13.454
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 5495 4958
Market capitalisation % of GDP (2019, 2018) 17.6% 18%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions ) 5.00
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 3.10% 3.1%
Population | Population growth rate 2,494,530 1.90%
Urbanisation rate 3.90% 4.00%
Unemployment rate 23.09% 23.09%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 84.85% 84.71%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 4,871.70 5,010.30
Access to electricity (% of population) 53.90% 52.50%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 97.8 99.1
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 1.793 1.723
Climate and Carbon Regulation Disaster Risk Management Act
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES GHANA
Main urban centres Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi, Tamale
Coast Line 539 km (335 mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 5.77 Ghana Cedi (GHS)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2018) 65 556 58 997
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 2 202 2 026
Market capitalisation % of GDP 17% 118%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) No green bond issued as at June 2020
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 14.80% 53%
Population 29 767 108 29 121 471
Urbanisation rate 3.36% 3.41%
Unemployment rate 6.71% 6.63%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) N/A N/A
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 3 158 2 940
Access to electricity (% of population, 2018) 82.39% 79%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 50.89% 64.73%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.537 0.549
Climate Regulation Renewable Energy Act
Ghana Meteorological Agency Act, 2004 (Act 682)
Energy Commission Act
National Disaster Management Organisation Act, 1996 (No. 517)
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES SOUTH AFRICA
Main urban centres Pretoria, Johannesbury, Cape Town, Durban
Coast Line 2,798 km (1,739 mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 16.73 South African Rand (ZAR)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2018) 369 289 349 554
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 6374 6132
Market capitalisation % of GDP 292% 316%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) 724
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 191% 294%
Population 57 779 622 57 000 451
Urbanisation rate 2.12% 2.18%
Unemployment rate 26.96% 27.33%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 78% 78.08%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 11 689 12 156
Access to electricity (% of population, 2018) 91.23 84.20%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 2.26% 1.29%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 8.980 8.687
Climate and Carbon Regulation The Carbon Tax Act (Act No. 15 of 2019)
National Energy Act 2008
Integrated Coastal Management Act (No. 24 of 2008)
Disaster Management Act (No. 57)
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES BOTSWANA
Main urban centres Gaberone, Francistown, Lobatse, Sowa Town, Selebi Phikwe
Coast Line N/A
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 11.57 Botswana Pula (BWP)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2018) 18 616 17 406
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 8 259 7 893
Market capitalisation % of GDP 204% 228%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) No green bond issued as at June 2020
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding bonds 1.4 8.
Population 2 254 126 2 205 128
Urbanisation rate 3.27% 3.19%
Unemployment rate (2018) 17.94% 17.63%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 85.28% 83.96%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 1 711 1 679
Access to electricity (% of population, 2018) 64.85% 62.60%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 0.34% 0.43%
CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita 2014) 3.243 2.535
Climate and Carbon Regulation N/A
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES SEYCHELLES
Main urban centres Victoria
Coast Line 491 km (305 mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 17.54 Seychelles Rupee (SCR)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2018) 1 59 1.5
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 16 434 15 684
Market capitalisation % of GDP 21% 18%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) 0
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding bonds 0.20% 0.20%
Population 96 762 95 843
Urbanisation rate 1.70% 1.99%
Unemployment rate 0.% 0.%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) N/A N/A
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker N/A N/A
Access to electricity (% of population, 2018) 100% 100%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 2.38% 2.15%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 5.419 4.484
Climate and Carbon Regulation Meteorology Act
Conservation and Climate Adaptation Trust of Seychelles Act
Disaster Risk Management Act
Energy Act
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES KENYA
Main urban centres Nairobi, Mombasa
Coast Line 1 420 km (882 mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 106.27 Kenyan Shilling (KES)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2018) 87 908 78 757
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 1 711 1 568
Market capitalisation % of GDP 25% 31%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) 43
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 17.25% 40.00%
Population 51 393 010 50 221 473
Urbanisation rate 4.05% 4.10%
Unemployment rate (2018, 2017) 9.13% 9.29%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) N/A N/A
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 1 114 1 062
Access to electricity (% of population, 2018) 75% 63.58%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 87.51% 81.49%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.31 0.293
Climate and Carbon Regulation Climate Change Act, 2016
National Drought Management Authority Act (No. 4 of 2016)
Energy Act 2006, Parts of which is executed by the Energy Management Regulations 2012
Environment and Land Court Act (Cap. 12A)
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws
KEY FIGURES NIGERIA
Main urban centres Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, Maiduguri, Aba, Jos
Coast Line 853km (530 mi)
Exchange rate: 1 US$= 386.62 Nigerian Niara (N)
GDP (Current US$, Millions, 2018) 397 270 375 745
GDP per capita (Current US$, 2018) 2028 1969
Market capitalisation % of GDP 9% 10%
Total Green bonds issued (US$, Millions, 2019 ) 106
Total turnover in the bond markets % of total outstanding 58.30% 126%
Population 195 874 740 190 873 311
Urbanisation rate 4.20% 4.31%
Unemployment rate 6.03% 6.01%
Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate) 84.53% 84.23%
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker 6 123 6 082
Access to electricity (% of population) 56.50% 54.40%
Renewable electricity output (% of total, 2015) 18.2% 17.59%
CO2 emissions (metric tons) per capita 2014 0.546 0.571
Climate and Carbon Regulation Regulations on feed-in-tariff for renewable energy sourced electricity in Nigeria 2015
Sources: World Bank, IFC, Absa Africa Financial Markets Index, Climate Laws